AGRICULTURE – UG DEGREE STANDARD
SUBJECT CODE: 284
UNIT- I: IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
Importance of Agriculture in Indian Economy and its sectoral relationship – Agricultural Development through five year plans in India and Tamil Nadu – Growth pattern of crops in India and Tamil Nadu in terms of area, production and productivity – Government Agricultural Policies – Agricultural development through NITI AYOG – import and export – role of NSC, FCI and PDS.
UNIT – II: FUNDAMENTALS OF CROP PRODUCTION
Factors of Production – Agricultural seasons of India and Tamil Nadu – Cropping patterns in India and Tamil Nadu – package of practices of different crops – Agro- Climatic zones of India and Tamil Nadu and their features – Weather and Climate – Weather forecasting – Climate change and its impact – Minimal tillage practices – Stress mitigating technologies including microorganisms – Nanoparticles and their applications.
UNIT – III: NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Soil – Soil structure – Factors influencing soil structure – Physical and Chemical properties – Effect of nutrient availability and plant growth – Problem soils and their management – Soil survey – its objectives and scope – Soil fertility and productivity – Dry farming – Rainfed agriculture – Conservation of soil and water – Watershed and waste land development. Land use pattern and planning – Size and distribution of holdings – types and systems of farming – Water resources development and management – Command area development – Ground water Development and Conjunctive use – Water use efficiency – Quality of irrigation water – Its effect in soil and crops – Management of poor quality water for crop growth.
UNIT – IV: CROP MANAGEMENT & ALLIED AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES
Cropping systems and integrated farming – Recycling of agricultural waste – Organic manures, green manures, bio fertilizers – Balanced usage – integrated nutrient management – Physiological disorders in crop plants and their management- Irrigation management of different crops Mushroom cultivation, bee keeping, silkwork rearing etc., Energy in Agricultural production – Sources – Solar, wind, animal, biomass and biogas – Mechanization in agriculture – Tractors & tillers – Agricultural implements and Machineries and their usage – livestock and poultry rearing.
UNIT – V: CROP IMPROVEMENT
Principles of breeding – Breeding methods in self , cross and vegetatively propogated crops – Modern tools in crop improvement – Heterosis breeding and Hybrid seed production technologies – Latest varieties of major crops in Tamil Nadu – Breeding for Climate resilience varieties – Variety release procedures – Application of bio technology in Agriculture – Tissue culture & its significance – Transgenic Plants. Plant Genetic Resources: Collection conservation and exchange-Crop varietal protection-PPV& FR authority and its role.
UNIT- VI: SEED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Seeds – Importance of quality seeds in Agriculture – Nucleus, Breeder, foundation, certified and labelled seeds – Seed certification techniques and processing in Tamil Nadu – Seed testing – Seed testing laboratories-ISTA standards for seed testing – seed village concept Seed Act – Seed coating and priming technologies – Seed enhancement technologies.
UNIT – VII: CROP PROTECTION PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES
Importance of pest, disease, nematodes and weed management in agriculture – categories of pests, diseases, nematodes and weeds – pest and disease surveillance and forecasting weather on pest and disease incidence – Symptoms of damages and control measures of pest, disease and nematodes of major crops in Tamil Nadu – Integrated pest, disease and nematode management in crop production – Pesticides and their use in IPM – mode of action – Pattern – plant protection equipments and their use – Plant quarantine. Storage pests, disease and nematodes and their management. Importance of biological control in pest, disease and nematode management. Weeds – Major weeds and their control.
UNIT – VIII: FARM BUSINESS AND FINANCE MANAGEMENT
Farm business management – Principles of farm business management – Types and systems of farms-Classical Production Functions – Cost concepts – Management of resources – Farm Planning and budgeting – Investment analysis – Risk and uncertainties in Agriculture – Agricultural credit system in India – Multi credit delivery system – Role of nationalized banks, NABARD and Regional Rural Banks – Lead Bank Scheme – Service area approach – Scale of finance-Credit Worthiness-3 Rs,5Cs and 7Ps of credit- Crop Insurance – Kisan Credit Cards (KCC) – Agricultural Insurance Company.
UNIT – IX: AGRICULTURAL MARKETING AND MARKET INTELLIGENCE
Marketing – Agricultural marketing – Market structure – Marketing Efficiency – Price Spread-Market Integration-Market Risk-Speculation and hedging – Market Institutions- Warehouses and rural godowns – Agmark-Cooperatives – Commodity Boards – Agri business management – Principles of Management-Entrepreneurship Development – Forms of Business organizations – Agricultural Price Policy – CACP- MSP – FRP- Procurement Price-Policies for agricultural development – Economic liberalization – WTO and its impact on agricultural export – Importance of Agriculture in Indian economy – Land size and distribution of holdings and land use pattern in Tamil Nadu – Agriculture under Five year Plans (FYPs) – Food Security – Public Distribution Systems (PDS) – Buffer Stock.
UNIT – X: AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION: PRINCIPLES AND METHODS
Extension methods for transfer of technology – AV aids-Communication models – Use of ICT in transfer of technology-Diffusion and adoption- Pre and post independence rural development initiatives: key features, strength and weakness of individual programmes – Programme planning and evaluation methods- Rural sociology – key features of Indian rural system-value system-social change- rural migration. Role of women in Agriculture.